Survey on the consequences of malaria disease on farm labour productivity and resource allocation among households in Omor community, Anambra State, Nigeria - NGA-1996-AEI-OMR
Overview
Identification
Country
Nigeria
Title
Survey on the consequences of malaria disease on farm labour productivity and resource allocation among households in Omor community, Anambra State, Nigeria
Survey Type
Autres Enquêtes IFORD [hh/aei] Les Autres Enquêtes IFORD sont réalisées dans le cadre de la collaboration entre l'IFORD et certains organismes étatiques ou non, ou dans le cadre de l'appui technique de l'IFORD aux pays africains. Il peut s'agir d'un recensement ou d'une enquête démographique par sondage et l'IFORD peut être soit responsable de la conception, l'élaboration des documents techniques et le contrôle des opérations de collecte dont l'exécution est dévolue à l'organisme en question; l'IFORD peut être responsable de certains aspects de l'opération (analyse, plan de tabulation, etc.). D'autres enquêtes réalisées par le personnel scientifique de l'IFORD ou par d'autres chercheurs mais sous l'égide de l'IFORD font partie des Autres Enquêtes IFORD. L'enquête pour l'étude comparative des déterminants socio-culturels et démographiques de la prévalence et du traitement de la schistosomiase urinaire a été réalisée dans le cadre du Programme des Petites Subventions pour la Recherche sur les Aspects Sociaux et Economiques des Maladies Tropicales en Afrique lancé par l'IFORD en 1993 et financé conjointement par la Banque Mondiale, l'OMS et le PNUD. Ce programme s'inscrit dans le cadre du Groupe de Recherche sur les Maladies Tropicales (Tropical Diseases Research Group - TDR) qui a pour objectif essentiel de renforcer les capacités des chercheurs africains en sciences sociales et en sciences biomédicales et de promouvoir l'intérêt sur les maladies tropicales en Afrique. C'est dans ce cadre que l'enquête sur les conséquences du paludisme sur la productivité de la maind'oeuvre agricole et l'affection des ressources dans les ménages a été réalisée à Omor dans l'Etat d'Anambra au Nigeria. Le responsable technique de cette enquête était monsieur Eric C. EBOH assisté de monsieur Joseph C. OKEIBUNOR.
Series Information
Les Autres Enquêtes IFORD sont réalisées dans le cadre de la collaboration entre l'IFORD et certains organismes étatiques ou non, ou dans le cadre de l'appui technique de l'IFORD aux pays africains. Il peut s'agir d'un recensement ou d'une enquête démographique par sondage et l'IFORD peut être soit responsable de la conception, l'élaboration des documents techniques et le contrôle des opérations de collecte dont l'exécution est dévolue à l'organisme en question; l'IFORD peut être responsable de certains aspects de l'opération (analyse, plan de tabulation, etc.). D'autres enquêtes réalisées par le personnel scientifique de l'IFORD ou par d'autres chercheurs mais sous l'égide de l'IFORD font partie des Autres Enquêtes IFORD. L'enquête pour l'étude comparative des déterminants socio-culturels et démographiques de la prévalence et du traitement de la schistosomiase urinaire a été réalisée dans le cadre du Programme des Petites Subventions pour la Recherche sur les Aspects Sociaux et Economiques des Maladies Tropicales en Afrique lancé par l'IFORD en 1993 et financé conjointement par la Banque Mondiale, l'OMS et le PNUD. Ce programme s'inscrit dans le cadre du Groupe de Recherche sur les Maladies Tropicales (Tropical Diseases Research Group - TDR) qui a pour objectif essentiel de renforcer les capacités des chercheurs africains en sciences sociales et en sciences biomédicales et de promouvoir l'intérêt sur les maladies tropicales en Afrique. C'est dans ce cadre que l'enquête sur les conséquences du paludisme sur la productivité de la maind'oeuvre agricole et l'affection des ressources dans les ménages a été réalisée à Omor dans l'Etat d'Anambra au Nigeria. Le responsable technique de cette enquête était monsieur Eric C. EBOH assisté de monsieur Joseph C. OKEIBUNOR.
ID Number
NGA-1996-AEI-OMR
Version
Version Description
Cette version est réalisée après la publication du rapport de l'opération.
Production Date
2009-07-23
Overview
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine and examine the consequencies of malaria illness on farm household labour supply, labour efficiency and resource allocation as well as the coping statégies being employed by
households to mitigate the impact on farm production. Within this overall framework, the study pursued five specific objectives as follows: (1) to ascertain and analyse the malaria prevalence in terms of seasonal and spatial
patterns as well as household, gender and occupational characteristics; (2) to examine local knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding malaria transmission, effects and treatment; (3) to determine and examine how and to
what extent malaria illness affects farm household labour supply and labour efficiency; (4) to investigate the consequencies of malaria illness on farm household labour allocation and ways and strategies by which households
cope to mitigate malaria's impact on farm production; (5) to make policy recommendations for minimising the potential adverse effects of malaria on labour profile, labour utilization and farm production.
The study was based on a sample of 50 households (sampling units) comprising a total of 150 individuals (sampling elements) in the five villages (Akanator, Obumeri, Uga, Iboji and Ikenga) that make up Omor community.
Sampling procedure was a combination of selection techniques at different stages of the sampling process - random selection strategy in combination with purposive techniques, where necessary or expedient. Data collection
was done during three separate (albeit overlapping) stages of the 1996 farming cycle: land preparation/planting season; weeding/harvesting season and dry season cropping commencing in the first quarter of 1997. Three
separate data collection instruments were used to obtain information relating to malaria prevalence among household members and malaria's impact on the labour patterns and farming activities of households/individuals. These
three instruments were administered concurrently throughout the duration of the field data collection. On the one hand, there was an interview schedule designed to obtain information on the knowledge, attitudes and practices
(KAP) of local people regarding malaria. Then there was an interview guide designed to obtain instant information from respondents having malaria illness. And there was another interview schedule used to obtain information on
the consequencies of malaria illness on the work time of household members as well as on labour efficiency and resource allocation patterns of farm households.
Information obtained through the KAP interview schedule and the malaria patient interview guide were analysed using simple statistics, including averages and percentages. Data analysis regarding the malaria impact on
household/individual labour supply, work output and farm production was based on counterfactual techniques. Data on coping strategies were analysed to indicte the manner adn extent to which farmers shifted resources to
"easier" activities or tasks during a malaria episode.
Data from physical observation, key informant interviews (medical practitionners who own health clinics and agricultural extension agents who pay regular visits to households and household members) showed that the
community has very poor health infrastrucutre and low availability of health services to a large majority of the people; and that malaria is the most important health burden among the households. No comprehensive anti-malaria
programme was in place as at the time of field survey.
Analysis of the information on local knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning malaria transmission, effects on farming and treatment choices indicate that household members possess considerable amount of knowledge
and impressions which guide their attitude/practices towards the malaria problem. About 90% of the respondents said they could identify the insect vector (mosquitoes), known in native parlance as "anwu nta", which transmits
malaria. Irrigation systems and the network of open canals were mentined by over 90% of respondents to be the principal aggravator of malaria prevalence in the community. Malaria prevalence cut across the seasons (both
rainy and dry); in the dry season, the pumping of iirrigation water via open canals was the singular aggravator of malaria prevalence. About 70% of respondents perceived the local "iba mixture" to be the most effective malaria
treatment.
About 80% of respondents reported having experienced at least a malaria episode during the 1996 farming cycle. The number of malaria episodes per individual was found to be 1 - 5 with an average of 2. About 52% of the total
number of malaria episodes were experienced during the land preparation/planting season (June - August) while the remaining percentage were reported for weeding (/harvesting season (september - Octobre). The modal
duration per malaria episode among respondents was 3 - 4 days.
The effects of malaria on labour supply (work time)and labour efficiency (work output/amount of work done) was found to be significantly adverse, based on both computed estimates and recall data from household members.
Work time was lost due to malaria-caused morbidity (complete disability and /or debility (partial disability)). Evidence about days of disability caused by malaria showed that, on the average, respondents lost a total of 6 - 8 days
during the 1996 farming cycle; in addition, the days of partial disability were found to be 2.7 days, on the average. So, malaria-caused morbidity accounted for a greater prportion of the total effective work time loss, compared to
malaria-caused debility. Data disaggregation by gerder suggested that women were completely disabled for fewer days than men, albeit partially disabled for marginally longer period - a pointer to the great importance of the
malaria patient's behavioural response to the illness.
It was also found that the consequences of malaria illness on household labour supply and farm production were most adverse where the sick person depended on wage labour, and in which case malaria-caused partial and/or
complete disability meant instant loss of cash earnings. Respondents adopted one or a combination of the following strategies to mitigate the labour reduction implication of malaria illness. (1) reallocution of labour tasks to non-ill
household members or use of hired labour to compensate for loss of work time, (2) switch to easier labour tasks/crop choices during days of partial disability and (3) switch from using labour on outlying farm-fields to homestead
farm-fields that are more accessible. On the average, larger households tended to cope better with the labour supply problems arising from malaria illness, since they had greater flexibility by drawing largely on the labour of other
household members (either at the time of malaria or later).
Based on these results and findings and considering the context in which the respondents earn their livelihoods, it is useful for health policy officials to consider a comprehensive and active anti-malaria programme. Speedy case
detection and treatment will help not only to reduce incapacity but also to avert debility arising from malaria illness. Anti-malaria programmes need to take into consideration gender differences in the duration of complete disability
and/or partial disability and by implication the gender differences in behavioural responses or coping strategies regarding malarious conditions. In order to move the research on malaria effects on household labour supply, labour
efficiency and resource allocation into a more strategic domain, it is imperative that data gathering and analysis be carried out from multivariate and long-term perspectives.

Kind of Data
Données échantillonées [ssd]
Units of Analysis
L'unité primaire d'analyse que le fichier décrit est l'individu. Néanmoins les données peuvent être aggrégées au niveau du ménage.
Scope
Notes

Caractéristiques environnementales; Caractéristiques individuelles; Connaissances; Croyances et pratiques; Causes; Traitement du paludisme;

Coverage
Geographic Coverage
Omor cummunity, anambra State, Nigeria
Universe
L'enquête couvre l'ensemble des cinq villages qui constituent la communauté Omor de l'Etat d'Anambra au Nigeria.
Producers and Sponsors
Primary Investigator(s)
Eric C. EBOH
Joseph C. OKEIBUNOR
Other Producer(s)



Funding
Banque Mondiale (BM)
Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS)
Programme des Nations Unies pour le Développement (PNUD)
Metadata Production
Metadata Produced By
IFORD - Institut de fromation et de recherche démographiques - Université de Yaoundé II -
Date of Metadata Production
2009-07-23
DDI Document Version
Version 1.0 du 23 juillet 2009.
DDI Document ID
NGA-1996-AEI-OMR